Origin of Universe, formation of Stars, Planets & Galaxies from the Vedas
The realm of astrophysics explores the origin of the universe by applying the principles of physics, and so far remains in its infancy and with their current abysmal knowledge base is unlikely to ever get an answer to the universal question on how the universe was created. The fact is that it is impossible to explain this very question with the current law of physics or higher physics. It actually requires "Metaphysics" to answer this question. The scientists and astrophysicists will need to look beyond physics / higher physics to get answers to cardinal questions of astrophysics. The scriptures prevalent in Hinduism have explained the very concept of genesis and existence of universe vividly. Atharva Ved and Rig Ved in particular contain this knowledge about the origin of universe which has been given below.
The Earth we live in
The earth we live in is a miniscule part of the universe which itself is a very tiny part of the 21 brahmands of Kaal Brahm. A Brahmand is a master universe which comprises the whole cosmos. Kaal Brahm has 21 such Brahmands. He acquired these from the Supreme God who bestowed him with these brahmands as a fruit of meditation, which he did in Satlok. Kaal Brahm therefore is the God in these 21 Brahmands. He however is still not the Supreme God.
Similar to Kaal Brahm, there is another God named Par Brahm, who is the master of 700 Quadrillion Brahmands. He too was given these by the Supreme God. We humans living in this earth however have nothing to do with Par Braham apart from one fact that the path to Satlok (Eternal Supreme Place) goes via the 700 quadrillion brahmands of Par Braham.
The Supreme God is also called Puran Brahm. However the actual name of Supreme God is Kavir Dev or Kabir Sahib. He is the master of infinite brahmands (collectively termed as Satlok) and actually also has ownership of the 700 quadrillion brahmands of Par Brahm and 21 brahmands of Kaal Brahm.
Origin Of Universe - Atharva Ved
Atharva Ved Kaand no. 4 Anuvaak no.1
The narrator of the Holy Vedas is Brahm (Kaal). He is saying that the Eternal God on Himself appearing in Satlok from Anamay (Anami) lok, by His wisdom, weaving like a cloth, secured the upper loks, Satlok etc. as boundless, self-illuminated and eternal. And the same God has temporarily established the lower seven hundred quadrillion (sankh) brahmands of ParBrahm and twenty-one brahmands of Brahm and also the smallest creation in them.
Description of Gravitational Force
Mantra no. 2
The Universal Supreme Father God with His word-power created "Rashtri" also called the "First Maya Rajeshwari" or "Parashakti" (also known as the attractive force i.e. gravitational attraction). Through that Parashakti only, He has established all the aforesaid brahmands with the never-ending quality of holding each other with an attractive force.
In the next mantra, Supreme God says that this knowledge about the origin of universe is only imparted by the Supreme God himself. He imparts this knowledge to his servants. Therefore it clarifies that the knowledge of creation of nature can't be discovered, it has to be told by the Supreme God himself.
Mantra no. 3
Supreme God Himself correctly tells the knowledge of the nature created by Him, and the knowledge of the origin of all the souls to His personal Das (servant/disciple) that, the Supreme God gave rise to Brahm (Kshar Purush / Kaal) from within Him i.e. from His body, by His word power and has secured all the brahmands, the Satlok, Alakh lok, Agam lok, and Anami lok above and the ParBrahm's seven sankh brahmands and Brahm's 21 brahmands below with His acquirable attractive force.
Mantra no. 4
The Supreme God has permanently i.e. eternally created the upper four loks, Satlok, Alakh lok, Agam lok and Akah/ Anami lok. The same God has also temporarily created and secured the lower Brahm and ParBrahm's loks and the other smaller loks.
Mantra no. 5
The Supreme God gave rise to Aashtra i.e. Ashtangi (Prakriti Devi / Durga) in Satyalok, the first from below (lowermost) among the upper four loks. He only is the King of kings, Guru of the Universe and the Complete/Supreme God (SatPurush) from whom everybody got separated. After that, all the living beings, having born from Jyoti Niranjan's (Kaal's) seed (semen) through Durga's (Aashtra) womb, started living in Heaven lok and Earth lok.
That same Supreme God takes a devotee, who does true sadhna, to the same first place (Satlok) from where we all got separated. On attaining that real happiness-giving God there, he (devotee) being carried away by happiness prays with joy that Oh God, the wanderers of infinite births have now found the real living place.
Mantra no. 7
In this Mantra, it has also been made clear that the name of that God, who has done all the Creation, is KavirDev (Supreme God Kabir).
Supreme God who is unchanging i.e. is 'eternal' in reality, the Guru of the universe (Jagat Guru), the basis of the soul; who takes those, who have gone to Satlok after becoming completely liberated, to Satlok, the Creator of all the brahmands, who does not betray like Kaal (Brahm), is, as it is, Himself KavirDev i.e. God Kabir.
Description of Supreme God, Par Braham & Kaal Brahm in Rig Veda
Rigved Mandal 10 Sukt 90
In this Mantra, there is description of Viraat (Kaal/ Brahm).
One who has thousand hands, feet, thousand eyes and ears etc., that Viraat (huge) form Kaal God, keeping all those who are under him in his full control i.e. blocking the 20 brahmands by encircling
them, is himself sitting above them (separately) in the 21st brahmand.
In this Mantra, there is description of Par Brahm (Akshar Purush) who is equipped with some of the qualities of God.
Similarly he, who is somewhat God, is Akshar Purush i.e. ParBrahm. And he who has taken birth or who will be born in the future, all develop through foodgrain by effort i.e. hardwork. This Akshar Purush also is a doubtful master of salvation; which means that, even Akshar Purush is somewhat God, but is not a giver of complete salvation.
In this Mantra, there is description of Puran Braham (Supreme God) and the three loks because the fourth Anami (Anamay) lok dates back before all other creation.
This Akshar Purush i.e. ParBrahm has this much supremacy. And that Param Akshar Brahm i.e. Purna Brahm / Supreme God is greater than him. All, Kshar Purush, Akshar Purush and all the living beings in their loks and in Satyalok, are one foot of this Supreme God Param Akshar Purush i.e. are just a small part of Him. This Supreme God's three divine loks like, Satyalok - Alakh lok - Agam lok, are His other eternal foot i.e. whosoever has originated in all the brahmands is a part or organ of SatyaPurush / Supreme God only.
This God, the Creator of the entire Nature, Himself appears in three different forms i.e. is Himself present in the three places (Satlok, Alakh lok, Agam lok) in the upper part of His creation. Here, Anami lok has not been mentioned because there is no creation there, and the Akah (Anamay/Anami) lok existed before the rest of the creation. Then, it is said that, after separation from that God's Satlok, the lower Brahm and ParBrahm's loks arise, and that Supreme God is also present everywhere above the eater Brahm i.e. Kaal (because Brahm-Kaal / Viraat eats one-lakh human beings daily because of the curse on him) and the non-eater ParBrahm i.e. Akshar Purush (ParBrahm does not eat human beings, but birth death and punishment according to their actions, remain the same in his loks); which means, this Supreme God's supremacy is over everyone. Supreme God Kabir only is the Master of the lineage who has extended His power over everyone. Like, the sun affects everyone by spreading its light. Similarly, the Supreme God has extended the range (capacity) of His power over all the brahmands to control them. Like, the tower of a mobile phone even when present in one area, extends its power i.e. the range (capacity) of the mobile in all the four directions. Likewise, Supreme God / Purna Prabhu has extended His invisible power everywhere, by which Supreme God controls all the brahmands sitting at one place.
After the creation of the three loks (Agam lok, Alakh lok, and Satlok) mentioned in the aforesaid Mantra 4, the Supreme God gave rise to Jyoti Niranjan (Brahm) i.e. from that All-powerful God Purna Brahm, KavirDev (God Kabir) only, Viraat i.e. Brahm (Kaal) was born. This same evidence is in Gita Adhyay 3 Mantra 15 that Brahm originated from the Akshar God i.e. Eternal God. This very evidence is also in Atharvaved Kaand 4 Anuvaak 1 Sukt 3 that Brahm originated from Purna Brahm and that same Purna Brahm created (bhoomim) all the small and big loks. That Purna Brahm is greater than this Viraat God i.e. Brahm; which means, is also his (Brahm's) Master.
Mention of 700 Quadrillion Brahmands of Par Brahm and 21 Brahmands of Kaal Brahm
Rig Ved Mandal 10 Sukta 90
The seven sankh brahmands of ParBrahm and the twentyone brahmands of Kaal/Brahm are present in the circular boundary, which tortures one in the fire of the sufferings of the punishment of sinful deeds. He who offers religious service to i.e. worships the Supreme God according to the ordinances, Supreme God liberates those devout souls bound like a sacrificial animal to the bondage of actions in the trap of Kaal from the trap of the bondage of actions created i.e. spread by Kaal; which means He is the liberator from the bondage i.e is Bandichhor.
Those flawless god-like devout souls, who in place of the incomplete wrong way of worship, worship on the basis of the religious act of true bhakti, they, enriched with the religious power, are main i.e. superior. They i.e. the successful devotees, in reality, by being equipped with the great power of bhakti, attain the complete happiness-giving Supreme God on the basis of the bhakti i.e. the earnings of the true bhakti. They go there where the sinless god-like devout souls of the earlier creation live.
Read it in further detail with full verses from the Vedas and their translations at the following links